本地安装Hadoop完整笔记

大数据 Alan 6年前 (2015-12-28) 3598次浏览 0个评论 扫描二维码

网络设置

首先在本地安装VirtualBox,然后添加CentOS虚拟机,都是常规安装,这里要稍加强调的是网络设置。打开对应机器的Settings>Network,然后配置网卡适配器为Bridged Adapter,Alan使用的是Mac采用无线上网,所以选择en0: Wi-Fi(Airport),另外请注意勾选下面的Cable Connected

本地安装Hadoop完整笔记

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0进行网卡的相关配置,主要修改如下设置(这里动态获取IP)

ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BOOTPROTO=dhcp

可通过ifconfig eth0查看连接情况

安装JDK

下载jdk并解压

cd/opt/
yum install wget -y
wget --no-cookies --no-check-certificate --header "Cookie: gpw_e24=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oracle.com%2F; oraclelicense=accept-securebackup-cookie" "http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/8u66-b17/jdk-8u66-linux-x64.tar.gz"
tar xzvf jdk-8u66-linux-x64.tar.gz

使用alternatives命令来进行安装

cd /opt/jdk1.8.0_66/
alternatives --install /usr/bin/java java /opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin/java 2
alternatives --config java

选择/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin/java完成安装,通过如下指令来安装jar和javac

alternatives --install /usr/bin/jar jar /opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin/jar 2
alternatives --install /usr/bin/javac javac /opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin/javac 2
alternatives --set jar /opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin/jar
alternatives --set javac /opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin/javac 

查看Java版本确认安装是否成功

[root@hadoop jdk1.8.0_66]# java -version
java version "1.8.0_66"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_66-b17)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.66-b17, mixed mode)

设置JAVA_HOME和JRE_HOME变量

export JAVA_HOME=/opt/jdk1.8.0_66
export JRE_HOME=/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/jre

添加环境变量到PATH中

export PATH=$PATH:/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin:/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/jre/bin

若要使这一环境变量永久生效,可执行vi /etc/profile,并在最后添加

PATH=/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/bin:/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/jre/bin:$PATH
export PATH

执行source /etc/profile即可生效

本地安装Hadoop完整笔记

安装Hadoop

首先添加一个用户hadoop并设置密码

adduser hadoop
passwd hadoop

接下来切换到用户hadoop并创建一个带密钥的ssh连接

su - hadoop
ssh-keygen -t rsa
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

本地安装Hadoop完整笔记输入ssh localhost来测试连接,无需输入密码,但第一次会提示将RSA添加入列表。执行exit退出当前用户。

[hadoop@hadoop ~]$ ssh localhost
The authenticity of host 'localhost (::1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is dd:82:21:61:3a:c2:be:f6:94:ff:e6:2c:82:47:1c:69.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'localhost' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
[hadoop@hadoop ~]$ exit

接下来下载Hadoop并解压到home目录下

cd ~
wget http://apache.opencas.org/hadoop/common/hadoop-2.6.0/hadoop-2.6.0.tar.gz
tar xzvf hadoop-2.6.0.tar.gz
mv hadoop-2.6.0 hadoop

执行vi ~/.bashrc在最后面添加如下Hadoop环境变量

export HADOOP_HOME=/home/hadoop/hadoop
export HADOOP_INSTALL=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_COMMON_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_HDFS_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export YARN_HOME=$HADOOP_HOME
export HADOOP_COMMON_LIB_NATIVE_DIR=$HADOOP_HOME/lib/native
export PATH=$PATH:$HADOOP_HOME/sbin:$HADOOP_HOME/bin

执行source ~/.bashrc来应用修改的配置,同样可以使用echo $PATH来进行查看
vi /home/hadoop/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hadoop-env.sh修改JAVA_HOME环境变量如下:

export JAVA_HOME=/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/

Hadoop下的配置文件较多,我们先针对基本的Hadoop单节点集群进行配置,切换到目录:cd /home/hadoop/hadoop/etc/hadoop/
编辑core-site.xml,添加如下配置

<configuration>
<property>
  <name>fs.default.name</name>
    <value>hdfs://localhost:9000</value>
</property>
</configuration>

编辑hdfs-site.xml文件,添加如下配置

<configuration>
<property>
 <name>dfs.replication</name>
 <value>1</value>
</property>

<property>
  <name>dfs.name.dir</name>
    <value>file:///home/hadoop/hadoopdata/hdfs/namenode</value>
</property>

<property>
  <name>dfs.data.dir</name>
    <value>file:///home/hadoop/hadoopdata/hdfs/datanode</value>
</property>
</configuration>

编辑yarn-site.xml文件,添加如下配置

<configuration>
 <property>
  <name>yarn.nodemanager.aux-services</name>
    <value>mapreduce_shuffle</value>
 </property>
</configuration>

编辑mapred-site.xml文件

cp mapred-site.xml.template mapred-site.xml
vi mapred-site.xml

添加如下配置

<configuration>
   <property>
      <name>mapreduce.framework.name</name>
      <value>yarn</value>
   </property>
</configuration>

cd ~,执行hdfs namenode -format命令格式化Namenode,切换到sbin目录(cd /home/hadoop/hadoop/sbin/),然后执行
start-dfs.sh和start-yarn.sh。此时执行jps

 [hadoop@hadoop ~]$ jps
1808 SecondaryNameNode
1445 NameNode
3274 Jps
3194 NodeManager
3099 ResourceManager

Hadoop NameNode的默认端口是50070,此时可尝试在浏览器中进行访问,如http://192.168.1.109:50070/(通过ifconfig可查看当前的IP)

本地安装Hadoop完整笔记

很多时候我们会同时为服务器配上一个域名,在本地要使其生效则需修改本地电脑的hosts文件,以Mac为例修改/private/etc/hosts文件(注:在terminal中操作需使用sudo su切换到root账号)

192.168.1.109   master.hadoop.com

此时我们访问http://master.hadoop.com:8088/来查看集群和所有应用的信息
本地安装Hadoop完整笔记

安装Hive

cd /home/hadoop
wget http://apache.opencas.org/hive/hive-1.2.1/apache-hive-1.2.1-bin.tar.gz
tar xzf apache-hive-1.2.1-bin.tar.gz
mv apache-hive-1.2.1-bin hive
chown -R hadoop hive

设置环境变量

su - hadoop
export HADOOP_PREFIX=/home/hadoop/hadoop
export HIVE_HOME=/home/hadoop/hive
export PATH=$HIVE_HOME/bin:$PATH

启动Hive

在启动Hive前需要做一些准备工作,创建 /tmp和/user/hive/warehouse目录并赋予g+w权限

 

cd /home/hadoop/hive
hadoop fs -mkdir /tmp
hadoop fs -mkdir /user/hive/warehouse
hadoop fs -chmod g+w /tmp
hadoop fs -chmod g+w /user/hive/warehouse

 

完成上述设置后输入bin/hive启动并尝试创建数据表进行测试
本地安装Hadoop完整笔记

安装Hbase

cd ~
wget http://apache.opencas.org/hbase/stable/hbase-1.1.2-bin.tar.gz
tar -xzvf hbase-1.1.2-bin.tar.gz
mv hbase-1.1.2 HBase
vi HBase/conf/hbase-env.sh

export JAVA_HOME=/opt/jdk1.8.0_66/

vi HBase/conf/hbase-site.xml

<configuration>
   //Here you have to set the path where you want HBase to store its files.
   <property>
      <name>hbase.rootdir</name>
      <value>file:/home/hadoop/HBase/HFiles</value>
   </property>
	
   //Here you have to set the path where you want HBase to store its built in zookeeper  files.
   <property>
      <name>hbase.zookeeper.property.dataDir</name>
      <value>/home/hadoop/zookeeper</value>
   </property>
</configuration>

HBase/bin/start-hbase.sh 
正常的话显示:
starting master, logging to /home/hadoop/HBase/bin/../logs/hbase-hadoop-master-hadoop.localhost.com.out

关闭服务
HBase/bin/stop-hbase.sh 

vi HBase/conf/hbase-site.xml 
添加
<property>
   <name>hbase.cluster.distributed</name>
   <value>true</value>
</property>
并进行如下修改
<property>
   <name>hbase.rootdir</name>
   <value>hdfs://localhost:8030/hbase</value>
</property>

HBase/bin/start-hbase.sh

 

常见错误

1.出现WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform… using builtin-java classes where applicable报错
这是由于系统是64位,而hadoop按照32位进行编译,
cd /home/hadoop/
wget http://dl.bintray.com/sequenceiq/sequenceiq-bin/hadoop-native-64-2.6.0.tar
tar -xvf hadoop-native-64-2.6.0.tar -C hadoop/lib
vi .bashrc,加入如下内容
export HADOOP_COMMON_LIB_NATIVE_DIR=$HADOOP_HOME/lib/native
export HADOOP_OPTS=”-Djava.library.path=$HADOOP_HOME/lib”
source .bashrc让环境变量生效,此时会发现错误消失

TODO:尝试自己编译一下64位hadoop,参考链接http://kiwenlau.blogspot.com/2015/05/steps-to-compile-64-bit-hadoop-230.html

2.安装Hive出现[ERROR] Terminal initialization failed; falling back to unsupported
java.lang.IncompatibleClassChangeError: Found class jline.Terminal, but interface was expected报错
vi .bashrc加入
export HADOOP_USER_CLASSPATH_FIRST=true
source .bashrc使其生效

3.ERROR [main] client.ConnectionManager$HConnectionImplementation: Can’t get connection to ZooKeeper报错

请确保在执行./bin/hbase shell之前执行 ./bin/start-hbase.sh

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